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How to Plant, Grow, and Harvest Cabbage

growing cabbage

Cabbage, scientifically known as Brassica oleracea var. capitata, is a leafy green vegetable that has been cultivated for its dense-leaved heads for thousands of years. It's a staple in culinary applications across various cultures worldwide, lending a crisp texture and a slightly peppery flavor to dishes.

Cabbage comes in various types, but the most popular are the green, red, and savoy cabbage. Green cabbage is the most common, appreciated for its durability and all-round use in the kitchen. Red cabbage is similar but has a vibrant hue and slightly peppery flavor, while Savoy cabbage has crinkly, tender leaves and a mild flavor.

Beyond its culinary use, cabbage is also a nutritional powerhouse. It is rich in vitamins C and K, and is a good source of fiber and vitamin B6. It is also known for its high antioxidant content, which can aid in reducing inflammation and promoting overall health.

Growing cabbage in your own garden can be an exciting venture. Not only will you have a fresh supply of this nutritious vegetable, but you'll also enjoy its vibrant foliage, which can be a pleasing addition to your garden landscape.

In the upcoming sections, we'll delve into how you can plant, grow, and harvest cabbage in your own garden, ensuring that you're never short of this versatile vegetable when you're cooking up a storm in the kitchen.

Optimal growing conditions for Cabbage - Climate, sunlight, and soil requirements Optimal

Cabbage is a cool-season crop, which means it thrives in slightly cooler climates with daytime temperatures around 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Let's explore the essential growing conditions needed for successful cabbage cultivation.


Cabbage can tolerate frost, and in fact, a light frost can actually improve its flavor. This makes it suitable for early spring or late fall planting, depending on your region's climate. Cabbage may struggle in very hot conditions, so it's crucial to time your planting to avoid the peak heat of summer.


Cabbage requires full sun exposure, which means at least 6 hours of direct sunlight each day. However, in regions with very hot summers, partial afternoon shade can help prevent the plants from overheating.

Soil Requirements

Cabbage prefers well-drained, fertile soil rich in organic matter. The ideal soil pH is between 6.0 and 7.0. This vegetable is a heavy feeder, so it's important to prepare your soil with plenty of compost or well-rotted manure before planting. Also, ensuring the soil is loose and not compacted will aid in root development and overall growth.

In the following sections, we'll guide you on when to plant your cabbage, how to select the right seeds, prepare your site, and manage your cabbage plants' ongoing care for a bountiful harvest. Stay tuned to learn more about each step of the journey in growing your own cabbage.

Step-by-step Guide to Planting Cabbage

growing cabbage

When to Plant – Best time of the year for planting Cabbage

Choosing the optimal time to plant cabbage can significantly influence the success of your harvest. As a cool-season crop, cabbage does best when it can mature in cooler weather. So, the planting time will depend on whether you're going for a spring or fall harvest.

Spring Planting

If you're planting for a spring harvest, start your cabbage seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the last spring frost date. This will give your seedlings a head start and protect them from any unexpected late frosts. Once the danger of frost has passed and the soil can be worked, you can transplant your seedlings outdoors, typically 2 to 3 weeks before the last expected frost date.

Fall Planting

For a fall harvest, you want the maturing crop to coincide with the cooling fall temperatures. In this case, you can directly sow the seeds outdoors around 12 to 14 weeks before your area's first expected fall frost.

Remember, the key to successful cabbage growing lies in timing the planting correctly so the plants mature while the weather is still cool. Careful planning can result in a bountiful and delicious cabbage harvest, perfect for coleslaw, sauerkraut, or a hearty winter stew.

Up next, we will discuss how to choose the right seeds for your garden and how to prepare your garden bed or pot for planting. Stick around to ensure you're fully equipped to grow and harvest your own cabbage crop.

Seed Selection – Choosing the right seeds for your garden

Selecting the right cabbage seeds for your garden is the first step towards a successful harvest. With numerous varieties available, you'll want to choose one that suits your personal preferences and aligns with your local climate and growing conditions.

Varieties of Cabbage

There are several types of cabbage, including green, red, and savoy, each offering unique flavors and textures.

1. Green cabbage: This is the most commonly grown type. It forms a tight, round head and has a slightly bitter flavor. Some popular varieties include 'Golden Acre' and 'Copenhagen Market.'

2. Red cabbage: Similar in shape to green cabbage, but with a vibrant purple-red color. It has a slightly peppery flavor and is great for adding a splash of color to salads and coleslaws. 'Red Acre' is a popular variety.

3. Savoy cabbage: This type features crinkly, loosely-wrapped leaves and has a milder and sweeter flavor than other varieties. 'Savoy King' is a common choice for many gardeners.

Consider Your Climate and Growing Conditions

When choosing cabbage seeds, consider your local climate and growing conditions. While cabbage generally prefers cooler weather, some varieties are more heat-tolerant, such as 'Ruby Perfection.' If your growing season is short, choose an early-maturing variety like 'Early Jersey Wakefield.'

Disease Resistance

It's also wise to choose varieties that are resistant to common cabbage diseases such as black rot and clubroot. Seed packets usually indicate if a variety is disease-resistant.

Purchasing your cabbage seeds from a reputable supplier ensures good quality and high germination rates. Now that you have your seeds, it's time to prepare your garden bed or pot for planting. The upcoming sections will guide you through these crucial steps, getting you one step closer to a fruitful harvest.

Site Preparation – How to prepare the garden bed or pot for planting

growing cabbage

Preparation of the planting site is a key step in ensuring healthy growth and a bountiful harvest of your cabbage plants. Here are the steps you should follow to prepare your garden bed or pot for planting.

Soil Preparation

Cabbage thrives in well-drained, fertile soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. Begin by clearing the planting site of any weeds or stones that could hinder the growth of the cabbage plants. Once cleared, amend the soil with plenty of compost or well-rotted manure to improve its fertility and texture. If your soil is heavy clay or sandy, adding organic matter will also improve its water retention and drainage.

Soil Testing

It's a good idea to perform a soil test to determine the pH and nutrient levels. Cabbage is a heavy feeder and particularly needs a good supply of nitrogen for healthy leaf growth. If the soil is too acidic (below pH 6.0), add lime to raise the pH. If it's too alkaline (above pH 7.0), add sulphur or peat moss to lower the pH.

Site Selection

Choose a site that gets at least six hours of sunlight each day. Although cabbage can tolerate partial shade, it will grow best in full sun. Also, try to select a site with good air circulation to help prevent disease.

Bed or Pot Preparation

If you're planting in a garden bed, space rows about 24 to 36 inches apart to allow for plant growth and air circulation.

If you're growing cabbage in pots, choose containers that are at least 12 inches deep and wide to accommodate the cabbage's extensive root system. Fill the pots with a high-quality potting mix that drains well.

By properly preparing your site, you're setting the stage for your cabbage plants to thrive. Now that your site is prepared, we can move on to the planting process, where you'll officially begin your cabbage-growing journey.

Planting Process - Detailed Steps on How to Plant Seeds or Seedlings

Once you've properly prepared your site, it's time to plant your cabbage seeds or seedlings. Here's a step-by-step guide to help you through this process.

Planting Cabbage Seeds

1. Sowing: Sow your cabbage seeds about 1/2 inch deep in the prepared soil. Place them about 3 inches apart to prevent overcrowding as they sprout and begin to grow.

2. Watering: After sowing, water the area gently but thoroughly. The soil should remain consistently moist but not waterlogged.

3. Germination: Cabbage seeds usually germinate in 7 to 12 days, depending on the soil temperature. The optimal soil temperature for cabbage seed germination is between 45°F and 85°F.

4. Thinning: Once the seedlings have grown two true leaves (the first pair of leaves is the seed leaves or cotyledons, and the next leaves are the 'true' leaves), thin them to 12 to 24 inches apart, depending on the cabbage variety's mature size.

Planting Cabbage Seedlings

1. Spacing: If you're starting with cabbage seedlings, plant them at least 12 to 24 inches apart in rows that are 24 to 36 inches apart.

2. Planting Depth: Dig a hole deep enough to accommodate the seedling's root ball. The base of the stem should be at the same level as the surrounding soil after planting.

3. Firming Soil: Place the seedling in the hole and backfill with soil, firming it gently around the base of the plant.

4. Watering: After planting, water thoroughly to help the plant establish in its new home.

Remember, whether you're planting seeds or seedlings, cabbage prefers a sunny location with well-draining soil. Giving your cabbage plants the right start will increase their chances of thriving and rewarding you with a healthy, bountiful harvest.

Care for Growing Cabbage

growing cabbage

Watering – How often and how much to water the plants

Watering is an essential part of growing cabbage, as it helps to ensure the plant's steady growth and development. Here's a guide on how to maintain optimal moisture levels for your cabbage plants.

Regular Watering

Cabbage prefers a consistent supply of moisture. It is not a drought-tolerant crop and can underperform or bolt to seed quickly in dry conditions. Therefore, it is vital to water your plants regularly. As a rule of thumb, aim for at least 1 to 1.5 inches of water per week, either from rainfall or manual watering.

Checking Soil Moisture

Checking the soil moisture can help determine if it's time to water. Dig down a few inches into the soil near your plants. If the soil at this depth is dry, it's time to water. However, if the soil is still moist, wait for another day or two before watering.

Watering Method

When watering, try to water the soil and not the leaves, as wet foliage can lead to disease problems. Drip irrigation or a soaker hose can be ideal as it delivers water directly to the soil, reducing water waste and keeping the foliage dry.

Watering Time

The best time to water your plants is in the early morning. This gives the plants plenty of time to absorb the water before the hotter parts of the day, reducing evaporation. Also, if any water gets on the leaves, it will dry quickly as the day warms up, minimizing the risk of disease.

Adjusting Watering Frequency

Remember, the watering frequency will need to be adjusted based on the season and weather conditions. In hotter and drier periods, you may need to water more frequently, whereas, in cool and rainy seasons, you may need to cut back.

Maintaining a steady watering routine will not only help your cabbage plants thrive but also produce crisp and juicy heads. Keep an eye on your plants and the soil conditions to know when it's time to water, and your cabbage plants will reward you with a bountiful harvest.

Fertilizing – The type of fertilizer needed and how to apply it

Proper fertilization is crucial to the development and productivity of your cabbage plants. This section outlines the types of fertilizers suited for cabbages and how to apply them for the best results.

Selecting the Right Fertilizer

Cabbage is a heavy feeder and will benefit from regular feeding with a balanced all-purpose fertilizer. Look for a product that contains equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium - often labelled as N-P-K on the package. A fertilizer with an N-P-K ratio of 10-10-10 or 14-14-14 can work well.

When to Fertilize

You should start fertilizing once the cabbage plants have settled into their new home and are actively growing. The first application should occur about two weeks after planting. Additional feedings can be done every 2-3 weeks until a few weeks before harvest.

How to Apply Fertilizer

When it's time to fertilize, apply the product around the base of the cabbage plants, making sure to avoid the leaves. If fertilizer gets on the foliage, it could burn the plant. Once applied, water well to help the nutrients seep into the soil and reach the roots.

Supplementing with Organic Matter

In addition to regular fertilization, incorporating organic matter such as compost or well-rotted manure into the soil can also be beneficial. This not only adds additional nutrients but also improves soil structure, promoting better root development and water retention.

Monitoring Plant Health

While fertilization is essential, avoid overdoing it as excessive nutrients can lead to lush foliage but smaller heads. Monitor the health of your plants and adjust your feeding schedule as necessary.

Yellow or slow-growing leaves can be signs of nutrient deficiency. In summary, a successful cabbage crop requires a well-planned fertilization strategy. By providing your cabbage plants with the right nutrients at the right time, you can expect a bountiful and flavorful harvest.

Disease and Pest Control – Common diseases and pests that can affect Cabbage, and how to manage them

Cabbage, like any other plant, can be susceptible to various diseases and pests. In this section, we'll take a look at the common threats to cabbage plants and discuss the steps you can take to prevent or manage them.



Clubroot is a soil-borne disease that causes swollen and distorted roots. It can stunt the growth of the plant and cause wilting. Lime the soil to maintain a pH above 7.2, and practice crop rotation to prevent clubroot.

Black Rot

Black rot can cause yellowing and wilting of the outer leaves and black veins. It is spread through contaminated seeds, water splash, and insects. Plant disease-free seeds, provide good drainage, and remove and destroy affected plants to manage this disease.

Fusarium Wilt

Fusarium wilt is a fungal disease that causes wilting and yellowing of leaves. It is most prevalent in warm climates. To prevent it, practice crop rotation and plant resistant varieties.


Cabbage Worms

Cabbage worms are green caterpillars that eat large holes in cabbage leaves. You can pick them off by hand or use a natural insecticide like Bacillus thuringiensis.


Aphids are small insects that suck sap from the cabbage plants, leading to curled and yellow leaves. Use insecticidal soap or introduce beneficial insects like ladybugs and lacewings that prey on aphids.

Cabbage Root Maggots

Cabbage root maggots are white, legless larvae that feed on the roots of cabbage plants, causing wilting and slow growth. To control them, use row covers and practice crop rotation.

General Tips for Disease and Pest Control

Maintaining healthy soil and good airflow between plants can help prevent many diseases. Regular inspection of your cabbage plants will help you spot early signs of pests or disease, and early intervention can prevent minor issues from becoming major problems.

Remember, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Keep your garden clean, rotate your crops, and choose resistant varieties when possible. If pests or diseases persist, don't hesitate to reach out to your local extension service for help. Happy gardening!

Harvesting Cabbage

growing cabbage

When to Harvest – Identifying signs that the Cabbage is ready for harvesting

As your cabbage plants grow and thrive, a question that will likely come up is "when is the right time to harvest?" Understanding the ideal time to harvest is crucial for the best yield and quality of your cabbages. Here's what you need to know.

Signs of Maturity

Cabbage is usually ready to harvest within 70 to 100 days after planting, depending on the variety. Here are the signs to look out for when determining if your cabbage is ready for harvesting:

Size: Mature cabbages are usually about the size of a large grapefruit or bigger. The size can vary depending on the variety, so it's helpful to know what size your particular type is expected to reach at maturity.

Firmness: A ready-to-harvest cabbage will feel firm when squeezed. If the head is still loose or soft, it needs more time to develop.

Color: Depending on the variety, a mature cabbage head will be a deep green, red, or purple color.

Overall Health: Check the leaves and overall health of the plant. If the outer leaves are wilting or turning brown, it may be time to harvest before the head is affected.

Harvesting Tips

When you've determined that your cabbage is ready to be harvested, use a sharp knife to cut the head off at the base of the plant. Make sure to leave a few outer leaves to protect the head.

Remember, it's better to harvest your cabbage a little early rather than too late. If left too long, cabbages can split or bolt, which can drastically affect their taste and texture.

After the main head is harvested, you can leave the plant in the ground. Often, it will produce smaller secondary heads that you can harvest later.

In the next section, we'll discuss how to properly harvest your cabbage to prevent damage to the plant and maximize your yield. Stay tuned!

How to Harvest – Techniques for harvesting Cabbage to prevent damage to the plant and fruit

Harvesting your home-grown cabbage is a rewarding experience, but it requires care and the right technique to ensure you do not harm the plant or damage the cabbage heads. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to effectively harvest your cabbages.

Harvesting Steps

1. Choose the Right Time: The ideal time to harvest cabbage is in the early morning when the heads are still cool from the night air. This helps keep them crisp and preserves their flavor.

2. Check for Maturity: Before you harvest, confirm that the cabbage is mature. As we discussed earlier, a ripe cabbage will be firm to touch, and its size will vary based on the variety.

3. Cut the Stem: Using a sharp knife, cut the cabbage head off at the base of the plant. Make sure to leave a few of the outer leaves intact to protect the head and support the possible growth of additional, smaller heads.

4. Handle with Care: Handle the harvested cabbages carefully to avoid bruising or damaging them. Any damage can make the cabbages prone to rot during storage.

After the Harvest

If the plant is healthy, leave it in the ground after harvesting the main head. Many cabbage varieties will grow several smaller heads on the remaining stem, providing you with a bonus harvest.

In the final sections, we will discuss how to store and preserve your harvested cabbages to maximize their freshness and longevity. Stay tuned to learn more about the last stages of your home-grown cabbage journey!

Post-Harvest Care and Storage – How to store and preserve Cabbage for maximum freshness and longevity

After the excitement of harvest comes the important task of proper storage and preservation. With appropriate measures, cabbage can be stored for several months while retaining its nutritious qualities. Follow these tips and methods to maximize your cabbage's freshness and longevity.

Post-Harvest Care

1. Cleaning: Shake off any soil and gently remove the loose outer leaves. Do not wash the cabbage heads if you plan to store them, as excess moisture can hasten decay.

2. Curing: Although cabbage doesn't traditionally require a curing process like some vegetables, allowing it to dry out in a cool, shady, and well-ventilated place for a day can help to extend its storage life.

Storage Methods

1. Cold and Moist Storage: Cabbages are best stored in cool and humid conditions. A temperature of 0-2°C (32-36°F) and a high humidity level of about 95% are ideal. An unheated garage, root cellar, or even the refrigerator can provide these conditions.

2. In the Fridge: If you’re storing cabbage in the refrigerator, wrap it in plastic to retain its moisture and place it in the crisper drawer. Don't cut the cabbage until you're ready to use it, as cut cabbages will lose their Vitamin C content more rapidly.

3. Long-Term Preservation: For extended storage, consider preserving cabbages as sauerkraut or pickles. These methods involve fermentation, which can also enhance the nutritional value of the cabbage.

By following these storage and preservation tips, you can enjoy the fruits of your labor for much longer and add a home-grown touch to your meals even out of season. Stay tuned for the final recap and encouraging words to continue your gardening journey!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How long does it take for cabbage to grow?

Cabbage is generally a cool-weather crop and typically takes about 80-180 days to mature from seed, depending on the variety and the growing conditions. Early varieties usually mature in about 70 to 75 days, while later varieties may take up to 150 days or more. If you're starting from transplants, the time to maturity can be around 60-105 days. Be sure to check the specific maturity time for the variety you choose on the seed packet or plant label.

What are the cabbage growing stages?

1. Seed Germination: This is the first stage of growth where the seeds are sown directly into the soil or started indoors. Germination usually occurs in about 5-10 days, but this can vary depending on the soil temperature and moisture levels.

2. Seedling Stage: Once the seeds have germinated, the plant begins to develop its first set of true leaves. Seedlings can be transplanted into the garden when they are about 4-6 weeks old and have at least two sets of true leaves.

3. Vegetative Growth Stage: This stage is characterized by the rapid growth of leaves. During this phase, the plant focuses all its energy on creating a strong root system and developing the foliage necessary for photosynthesis.

4. Heading Stage: After the vegetative growth phase, cabbage plants start to form the characteristic compact head at the center of the plant. The time it takes for heads to form can vary greatly depending on the variety of cabbage and the growing conditions.