top of page

How to Plant, Grow, and Harvest Turnips

growing turnips

Turnips, scientifically known as Brassica rapa subsp. rapa, are root vegetables that hold a significant place in culinary traditions across various cultures. Originating from Europe and Western Asia, turnips have since been grown and consumed worldwide, adding a unique flavor and texture to a wide array of dishes.

Turnips are typically known for their white, bulbous root, but there are many types with different colors, sizes, and flavors. The most common type has a snow-white bulb with a lovely purple top. The size can range from that of a large radish to bigger varieties that can weigh several pounds.

Aside from its culinary versatility, turnips also offer an abundance of health benefits. They are a good source of vitamin C, fiber, and minerals such as potassium and manganese. Turnip greens, which are also edible, are rich in vitamins A, K, and calcium.

Growing turnips in your own garden can be an exciting and fruitful endeavor. Not only will you have a ready supply of this nutritious vegetable, but you'll also appreciate the lush green leaves that can beautify your garden space.

In the following sections, we'll explore in detail how you can plant, grow, and harvest turnips in your own garden, ensuring that you're never out of this versatile vegetable when you're ready to create delicious meals in the kitchen.

Optimal growing conditions for Turnips - Climate, sunlight, and soil requirements Optimal

Understanding the optimal growing conditions for turnips is the first step to producing a healthy and bountiful harvest. Turnips are versatile, cold-tolerant vegetables that can be grown in many climates.


Turnips thrive in cooler weather, which makes them a perfect crop for both spring and fall. While turnips can handle a light frost, they do not grow well in intense summer heat. Ideal temperatures for turnip growth range from 40°F to 75°F.


Turnips require full sun to partial shade. At least four to five hours of sunlight each day is necessary for healthy growth. However, if you live in a region with strong summer sun, partial shade can prevent the plant from drying out.

Soil Requirements

Turnips prefer a well-draining soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. The soil should be deep and loose to accommodate the growth of the root. Soil rich in organic matter is beneficial as it helps retain moisture and provides nutrients for the plants. It is recommended to mix in some compost or aged manure before planting for the best results.

Knowing these optimal growing conditions for turnips can increase the yield of your harvest significantly. In the following sections, we will delve into when and how to plant turnips, as well as other steps needed to care for your turnip plants until harvest.

Step-by-step Guide to Planting Turnips

growing turnips

When to Plant – Best Time of the Year for Planting Turnips

Turnips are cool-weather crops, so knowing when to plant them can greatly affect the success of your harvest. While the exact time can vary depending on your local climate, there are generally two prime planting seasons for turnips in a year.

Spring Planting

For a spring harvest, turnip seeds can be sowed directly outdoors 2 to 4 weeks before the last spring frost date. As turnips are hardy vegetables, they can handle a bit of frost, and the cooler temperatures of spring can result in a crisp, sweet flavor.

Fall Planting

Turnips can also be grown for a fall harvest. In this case, plan to plant them about 2 to 3 months before the first expected fall frost. The turnips will grow in the cooling weather of fall and can be harvested before the deep winter freeze.

It's important to note that turnips grow relatively quickly, typically maturing in 6 to 8 weeks. This makes them a good choice for succession planting, which means you can plant a new round of seeds every 2 to 3 weeks for a continuous harvest throughout the growing season.

In the next section, we'll talk about how to select the right seeds for your garden and prepare the site for planting, so you can make the most out of your turnip growing venture.

Seed Selection – Choosing the Right Seeds for Your Garden

Choosing the right turnip seeds is a vital step to ensure a successful harvest. When it comes to turnips, there are several varieties to choose from, each offering unique characteristics in terms of taste, size, color, and growing conditions.

1. Purple Top White Globe

This is the most common variety, known for its large, round shape and purple and white skin. It's favored for its sweet, mild flavor and the fact it grows well in many soil types.

2. Tokyo Cross

Tokyo Cross is an award-winning variety that is celebrated for its fast maturity and smooth, white skin. The roots are smaller, making it a good choice if you prefer petite, tender turnips.

3. Golden Globe

Golden Globe turnips, as their name implies, have a beautiful golden color. They are known for their sweet and buttery taste and are a great addition if you are looking for something different in your garden.

4. Hakurei

Hakurei turnips are a popular Japanese variety. These turnips are small and very tender, with a slightly sweet flavor. They are often eaten raw in salads but are also delicious when cooked.

When choosing turnip seeds, ensure that you purchase from a reputable supplier to ensure seed quality and viability. Check the packaging for information about the variety, planting instructions, and the pack's sell-by date to ensure the seeds are fresh.

Remember, different varieties may have slightly different growth habits and requirements, so it's essential to adjust your care routine based on the specific type of turnip you choose. In the next section, we'll guide you on how to prepare your garden bed or pot for planting turnips.

Site Preparation – How to Prepare the Garden Bed or Pot for Planting Turnips

growing turnips

Before you can plant your turnip seeds, it's critical to prepare your garden site properly. Good preparation will help ensure your turnips have the best chance of growing healthy and productive. Follow these steps to prepare your garden bed or pot for planting:

1. Select the Ideal Location

Turnips prefer full sun but can tolerate partial shade. Choose a location that gets at least 6 hours of sunlight each day.

2. Test and Amend Your Soil

Turnips thrive in well-draining soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. It's advisable to have a soil test done to determine your soil's pH and nutrient levels.

If your soil is too acidic, you can add lime to raise the pH. On the other hand, if it's too alkaline, add organic matter or sulphur to lower the pH.

3. Prepare the Soil

Turnips need loose, well-draining soil to allow their roots to expand freely. Use a garden fork or tiller to break up any compacted soil. Remove any rocks, roots or other debris that could hinder the growth of the turnip roots.

4. Add Organic Matter

Enrich your soil with organic matter like well-rotted compost or aged manure. This will improve the soil's fertility and drainage, both of which are essential for turnip growth.

5. Smooth the Soil Surface

After amending your soil, level it with a rake to create a smooth surface. This makes planting easier and helps ensure your seeds have good soil contact, which is important for germination.

If you're planting in a pot, make sure it's at least 12 inches deep to accommodate the growing turnips. Use a high-quality potting mix and ensure there are drainage holes at the bottom of the pot to prevent waterlogging.

With your site prepared, you're now ready to move on to the planting process. In the next section, we'll walk you through the steps on how to plant your turnip seeds or seedlings.

Planting Process - Detailed Steps on How to Plant Turnip Seeds or Seedlings

Once you've prepared your garden bed or pot, you can move on to the exciting step of planting your turnip seeds or seedlings. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to go about it:

1. Planting Turnip Seeds

Turnip seeds are small and should be planted fairly close to the surface of the soil. Follow these steps:

  • Moisten the soil before planting.

  • Sprinkle the seeds thinly across the soil surface.

  • Lightly cover the seeds with soil — they should be no more than 1/2 inch deep.

  • Space the rows 12 to 18 inches apart. This will provide ample room for the plants to grow.

  • Water gently to avoid washing away or dislodging the seeds.

2. Planting Turnip Seedlings

If you're planting turnip seedlings, the process is a bit different:

  • Dig a hole that is deep and wide enough to accommodate the root system of your seedling.

  • Place the seedling in the hole, making sure it's planted at the same depth it was in its previous container. The top of the root ball should be level with the soil surface.

  • Backfill the hole with soil, firming it gently around the base of the seedling.

  • Space the seedlings 4 to 6 inches apart, and make sure rows are 12 to 18 inches apart.

  • Water thoroughly after planting.

3. After Planting Care

After planting, be sure to keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged. A light layer of mulch can help retain soil moisture and deter weeds.

Once your turnips have sprouted, thin the plants to a distance of 4 inches apart to ensure each one has enough space to grow and develop.

By following these steps, you'll be on your way to growing successful turnips. In the next section, we'll discuss how and when to water your plants to promote healthy growth.

Care for Growing Turnips

growing turnips

Watering – How Often and How Much to Water Your Turnips

Water plays a vital role in the life cycle of turnips. Proper watering habits can lead to a successful harvest of this root vegetable. Here's how to effectively manage watering for your turnips:

1. Frequency of Watering

Turnips, like many other root vegetables, enjoy consistently moist soil. However, it's important not to overwater them as this could lead to root rot. During periods of average rainfall, watering once a week should suffice.

However, in hot or dry conditions, you may need to water your turnips more frequently, possibly every 2-3 days, to maintain soil moisture.

2. Quantity of Water

When watering, aim to moisten the soil to a depth of about six inches. This will ensure the water reaches the root zone where it's most needed. A good rule of thumb is to aim for one inch of water per week, including rainfall.

This, of course, will depend on your local climate and the soil type. Sandy soils, for example, may require more frequent watering as they drain faster.

3. Timing of Watering

It's best to water your turnips early in the morning. This allows the water to soak into the soil before the heat of the day causes evaporation. Avoid watering late in the evening, as the cooler temperatures can create a damp environment that's conducive to fungal diseases.

4. Method of Watering

A drip irrigation system or soaker hose is an effective way to water turnips as it delivers water directly to the roots and helps prevent leaf moisture that could lead to disease. If you're using a watering can or hose, aim the water at the base of the plant to minimize wetting the foliage.

Remember, the key to watering turnips effectively is to ensure consistent moisture. Too much or too little water can harm the plant, so monitor your plants and soil conditions closely. In the next section, we'll discuss fertilizing needs for growing healthy turnips.

Fertilizing – The type of fertilizer needed and how to apply it

To ensure your turnips grow strong and healthy, proper fertilization is crucial. This section covers the type of fertilizer best for turnips and how to apply it correctly.

1. Type of Fertilizer

Turnips are not heavy feeders, but they do appreciate a nutrient-rich soil. Ideally, a well-balanced, all-purpose garden fertilizer, such as a 10-10-10 (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium), is suitable for turnips. Additionally, turnips respond well to organic matter, so you might consider incorporating well-rotted compost or aged manure into your soil.

2. When to Fertilize

The first application should be done at planting time to give the seeds a good start. Sprinkle the fertilizer around the planting area and mix it well into the soil before planting your seeds. After that, you might want to apply a top dressing of compost or manure midway through the growing season to give your turnips an extra nutrient boost.

3. How to Apply Fertilizer

Always follow the manufacturer's instructions regarding the application rates of the fertilizer. Generally, scatter the fertilizer evenly around the plants, keeping it a few inches away from the stem to avoid direct contact, which could cause damage. After applying, water the area thoroughly to help the nutrients soak into the soil and reach the root zone.

4. Soil Testing

If you're unsure about your soil's nutrient levels, consider conducting a soil test. The test results will guide you on the specific nutrient deficiencies in your soil and recommend the most appropriate fertilizer for your garden.

Remember, while fertilizing is essential, over-fertilization can be harmful. Excessive nitrogen, for example, can lead to lush leaf growth at the expense of root development, resulting in smaller turnips. Therefore, always adhere to the recommended rates and timings when applying fertilizers.

In the upcoming section, we'll explore common diseases and pests that affect turnips and how to manage them effectively.

Disease and Pest Control – Common diseases and pests that can affect Turnips, and how to manage them

Growing turnips can sometimes invite unwelcome guests. This section will delve into the common diseases and pests that can affect your turnip plants and provide practical tips on how to manage them effectively.

1. Diseases


This soil-borne disease causes swollen and distorted roots, reducing crop yield. To prevent it, ensure good drainage, practice crop rotation, and lime acid soils to a pH of 7.0.

Black Rot

Black rot is a bacterial disease causing yellowing and wilting of leaves, and dark veins. It's crucial to buy disease-free seeds and practice crop rotation.

White Rust

It forms white, blister-like spots on the underside of leaves. To control it, maintain good air circulation, and apply a fungicide if necessary.

2. Pests


Aphids are small sap-sucking insects that can stunt plant growth and cause leaves to curl. You can manage them by spraying your plants with a strong jet of water to knock the aphids off or by introducing natural predators like ladybugs into your garden.

Root Maggots

These pests burrow into the roots, causing wilting. To prevent them, use floating row covers, rotate crops, and avoid too much organic matter.

Flea Beetles

Flea beetles cause tiny shot holes in the leaves. Control methods include using floating row covers, practicing crop rotation, and using an organic insecticide if the infestation is heavy.

3. General Pest and Disease Management Tips

Good garden hygiene is vital. Keep your garden free of plant debris, which can harbor pests and disease organisms. Use disease-free seed and rotate your crops to prevent disease build-up in the soil.

Proper watering and fertilizing will keep your turnips healthy and better able to fend off diseases and pests. Use drip irrigation or water early in the morning to let leaves dry out during the day, reducing disease risk.

Even with the best practices, problems can arise. Early detection is key - regularly inspect your plants, and at the first sign of trouble, take action.

In the next section, we will explore when and how to harvest your turnips for the best taste and storage. Stay tuned!

Harvesting Turnips

growing turnips

When to Harvest – Identifying Signs That the Turnips Are Ready for Harvesting

Harvesting your homegrown turnips at the right time is just as crucial as the other stages in the cultivation process. Let's dive into the tell-tale signs that your turnips are ripe and ready to be harvested.

Growth Time: Turnips generally reach their mature size between 45-60 days after planting. However, they can be harvested at any time once they reach a usable size.

Root Size: Turnips are known for their bulbous roots, which are the main edible part of the plant. A mature turnip root is usually about 2-3 inches in diameter, roughly the size of a tennis ball. You can gently brush away some soil at the top of the root to check its size.

Leaf Quality: While the roots are the primary harvest, turnip greens are also nutritious and tasty. They're best when harvested young and tender – older leaves can become tough and bitter.

Season: Turnips taste best when harvested in cool weather. They have a reputation for becoming sweeter after a frost. If you've planted in the spring, aim for a late spring or early summer harvest. If you've planted in late summer, you can harvest in late fall.

Remember, young turnips tend to be more tender and flavorful than overly mature ones. If you're in doubt, it's better to harvest early rather than late. It's also beneficial to stagger your plantings every 2-3 weeks during the growing season, so you have a consistent supply of fresh, tender turnips.

In the next section, we will guide you on the best techniques to harvest your turnips, ensuring the plants are not damaged and you get the most out of your crop. Keep reading to learn more!

How to Harvest – Techniques for Harvesting Turnips to Prevent Damage to the Plant and Roots

When it comes to the harvest, correct techniques will help ensure the health of your plants and maximize the yield of your crop. Let's delve into the steps you need to follow when harvesting turnips from your garden:

Check the Size: Before pulling out the whole plant, check the size of the turnip root. Brush away some soil at the top of the root to see if it's about 2-3 inches in diameter. If it is, it's ready to harvest.

Loosen the Soil: Before you start pulling the turnip, it's a good idea to loosen the soil around it. You can use a garden fork or a spade to do this. Be careful not to damage the root in the process.

Gently Pull the Turnip: Once the soil is loose, grip the turnip plant at the base of its leaves and gently pull it out of the ground. If the soil has been sufficiently loosened, it should come out easily. If you encounter resistance, stop pulling and loosen the soil some more to prevent damaging the turnip.

Harvest the Leaves: If you want to harvest turnip greens, simply cut the leaves off the plant, leaving about an inch of green on top of the turnip root. Young, tender leaves are best for eating. Remember, the more leaves you take, the more it can impact the growth of the root.

Clean and Store: After harvesting, brush off any excess soil and store the turnips in a cool, dry place. Turnips can be stored for several weeks, but their greens should be used within a few days for optimal freshness.

Harvesting your turnips correctly will lead to a healthier crop and a better yield. So, when it's harvest time, follow these steps to ensure you get the most out of your turnip plants. Happy harvesting!

Post-Harvest Care and Storage – How to Store and Preserve Turnips for Maximum Freshness and Longevity

After a successful harvest, proper storage of your turnips is essential to maintain their freshness and extend their shelf life. Let's explore the best practices for storing and preserving your turnips:

Cleaning: After harvesting, brush off the soil clinging to the turnips. However, refrain from washing them until you are ready to use them. This helps prevent premature rotting.

Remove the Greens: If you haven't already, separate the turnip roots from the greens. The greens, if left attached, can draw moisture from the roots, reducing their storage life.

Storing the Turnip Roots: Store turnip roots in a cool, dark, and well-ventilated place. Ideal temperatures range between 32°F and 40°F (0°C - 4°C), with a relative humidity of about 90-95%. This environment is often found in a refrigerator or a cellar. When stored properly, turnips can last for several months.

Storing the Turnip Greens: The greens should be used within a few days for optimal freshness, but they can be stored in the refrigerator for up to a week. To store them, lightly wrap the unwashed greens in a damp paper towel and place them in a plastic bag in the vegetable crisper drawer.

Preservation Techniques: If you have a large harvest, consider preservation techniques such as freezing or pickling. For freezing, blanch the turnips and their greens before freezing them in airtight containers. Pickling turnips is another popular method of preservation and can add a zesty flavor to your harvest.

By following these post-harvest care and storage practices, you'll maximize the freshness and longevity of your turnips. These nutritious and versatile root vegetables can then be enjoyed in many meals to come.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How long do turnips take to grow

Turnips are relatively fast-growing plants. From the time of planting, turnips typically take about 60 days to reach maturity and be ready for harvest. However, you can harvest the greens earlier, usually around 40 days after planting, for use in salads or as cooked greens. Remember, the growth rate can be influenced by various factors, including the specific variety of turnip, soil quality, and environmental conditions.

Recap and Final Thoughts: Time to Start Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Turnips

We've come a long way in our journey from seed to harvest. Let's take a moment to recap the essential steps in planting, growing, and harvesting turnips:

Optimal Growing Conditions: Understanding that turnips thrive in a temperate climate, with full sunlight and well-draining, rich soil.

When to Plant: Recognizing the best times for planting turnips, primarily in early spring or late summer for a fall harvest.

Seed Selection: Learning how to select high-quality turnip seeds that are suitable for your specific garden conditions.

Site Preparation: Preparing your garden bed or pot appropriately, making sure it's ready for the planting process.

Planting Process: Following the step-by-step guide on how to correctly plant your turnip seeds or seedlings.

Watering: Understanding the watering needs of your turnip plants, including frequency and amount.

Fertilizing: Knowing when and how to fertilize your turnips, ensuring they receive the nutrients necessary for optimal growth.

Disease and Pest Control: Being aware of the common diseases and pests that can affect turnips, and how to manage them effectively.

When to Harvest: Identifying the signs that your turnips are ready to be harvested.

How to Harvest: Utilizing proper techniques to harvest your turnips without causing damage to the plants.

Post-Harvest Care and Storage: Learning how to store and preserve your turnips for maximum freshness and longevity.

Growing turnips in your garden can be a gratifying experience. Not only do you get to enjoy the fruits of your labor, but you also get to witness the magic of nature right in your backyard. So, whether you're a seasoned gardener or a novice just getting started, don't hesitate to plant some turnip seeds.

Remember, every great garden starts with a single seed. So go ahead, take the plunge, and before you know it, you'll be reaping a bountiful harvest of delicious, home-grown turnips.

Establish Growers is supported by its audience. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission.

Establish Growers (14).png

Welcome to Establish Growers, we are an online haven, devoted to all aspects of gardening, microgreens, houseplants, and vegetable cultivation.

Your all-in-one guide to growing and savoring nutrient-dense microgreens at home.

5 eBooks (7).png

Follow Us:

  • Pinterest


Join our Newsletter to receive our latest posts about growing!

Thanks for subscribing!

bottom of page